Disability specialists have claimed that thanks to

first_imgDisability specialists have claimed that thanks to new legislation disabled people are finding it easier to travel, but indicated that there was still room for improvement.Tourism for All, a charity focusing on accessible tourism services for the disabled and the elderly claimed that the industry had a duty to provide equal travel opportunities, claiming that improvements in air travel had been won on the back of hard lobbying.Recent legislation from the European Commission (EC) stipulated that air carriers, agents and tour operators are not permitted to refuse a reservation from a passenger or deny them boarding to an aircraft on the grounds of disability or reduced mobility – except if a safety concern is raised.Brian Seaman, spokesperson for Tourism for All, said: “The airports themselves, where it’s a built environment, all have a duty to make their properties and facilities available to people with disabilities, under the Disability Discrimination Act legislation. There’s been an awful lot of people trying to encourage the businesses, airlines and airports to do more… It’s only through encouragement that all these businesses have made changes.”The group added that the Disabled Persons Transport Advisory Committee was currently looking into the layout and configuration of new aeroplanes, including aspects like toilet size and extra floor space, in a bid to ensure that new models are as accessible as possible.ReturnOne wayMulti-cityFromAdd nearby airports ToAdd nearby airportsDepart14/08/2019Return21/08/2019Cabin Class & Travellers1 adult, EconomyDirect flights onlySearch flights Map RelatedEU legislation for disabled air passengersEU legislation for disabled air passengersDisabled travel: expert advice for planning your trip to Rio 2016 and beyondWith the Olympic and Paralympic Games quickly approaching, Skyscanner and the Foreign and Commonwealth Office have teamed up to bring together travel advice and information for disabled travellers heading to Rio this summer.Disabled travel tips from Paralympian Ade AdepitanTV presenter, former Paralympian and avid traveller Ade Adepitan shares his top pieces of advice to disabled travellers, the joy of a travel checklist and his favourite destinations.last_img read more

Scientists develop new understanding of how psychiatric diseases manifest and can be

first_img Source:https://www.feinsteininstitute.org/ Jul 3 2018Research scientists from The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research and the Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell in Hempstead, NY, in conjunction with their colleagues at Rockefeller University in New York City, have developed a new understanding of how certain psychiatric diseases – those that involve uncontrollable reactions to stimuli such as the high and low experiences attributed to bi-polar disorder, the impulsivity of an individual suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and even suicidality – manifest and potentially can be treated. These findings were published today in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).The paper, entitled “Molecular Profiling of Reticular Gigantocellularis Neurons Indicates that eNOS Modulates Environmentally Dependent Levels of Arousal,” focuses on the neurons that are specialized cell transmitting nerve impulses of the medullary reticular nucleus gigantocelluraris (NGC), an area deep in the brainstem just above the spinal cord that activates response to stimuli. Researchers used a recently-developed technique called “retro-TRAP” that allows for the identification of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) molecules or pathways within neurons. The study identified the presence within the mRNA of an enzyme known as endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), which previously was found primarily in blood vessels – not in neurons.”Discovering that eNOS was in neurons was quite unexpected and led to further studying when and how the eNOS within neurons is activated, and how such activation manifests in the body,” said Joel N.H. Stern, PhD, co-senior author of the paper and associate professor, departments of neurology, surgery, science education, and molecular medicine at the Zucker School of Medicine and the Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, and co-director of the Autoimmune Brain Disorder Center at Lenox Hill Hospital.Hypothesizing that mutated eNOS in NGC brain cells might be responsible for incongruous reactionary behavior that continues well after the stimulating event passes, the researchers conducted two key experiments on mice: First, they tested under which conditions eNOS was active. Because it is a molecule that produces nitric oxide (NO), researchers were able to monitor its level of activity by monitoring the levels of oxidation in the cells. While the mice were in a familiar environment in their home cage, eNOS was not very active. When these mice were then exposed to various new environments and experiences, the activity of the eNOS increased significantly during the period of exposure and immediately after.Related StoriesNew research links “broken heart syndrome” to cancerNanoparticles used to deliver CRISPR gene editing tools into the cellNew therapy shows promise in preventing brain damage after traumatic brain injuryNext, the researchers sought to understand what behavior would manifest if eNOS in NGC brain cells were blocked or inhibited. A chemical that inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO), effectively preventing eNOS from functioning, was precisely microinfused specifically into the NGC of the mice. Then mice with and without active eNOS were exposed to different environments and experiences where they were able to freely explore. When the mice with inactivated eNOS were returned to their cages after exposure to the stimuli, they behaved in a hyperactive way long after the stimuli were removed.”A human analogy might be when a person gets excited by something good that happens and cannot come down from that high, or alternatively, gets stuck in a depressive state after a negative experience,” Dr. Stern said.Since multiple prior studies have found genetic mutations in the eNOS gene (NOS-III) in humans with various aspects of bipolar and major depressive disorder, including suicidality, the implications of this study may be far reaching. It suggests that NOS-III mutations may contribute to the development of these psychiatric problems, and relief may perhaps come in the form of optimizing the production of nitric oxide.”The discovery of the presence of eNOS in NGC brain cells, and the effect of eNOS on the length of reactions to stimuli, may signal a new understanding and the discovery of a new mechanism for how certain psychiatric diseases that involve a mutation of the NOS-III gene can potentially be treated or controlled,” said Dr. Stern.last_img read more